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Cold-water fishing for trout and salmon are a passion for many folks around the world and in Texas (United States of America) they try to get 14-year-olds hooked on fishing rather than drugs.
However, it takes decades of "trial and error" experiences to be successful at catching these very intelligent freshwater fish. You can find a "seasoned" flyfisherman or icefisherman to help you be successful at finding where the salmon and trout are hiding to snap at your lure; or you can understand "Salmonoid Ecology" to understand their species' needs and where they'll most likely be at any given day in any given stream, pond or lake!
It is amazing how many would-be fisherman give up on trout fishing after repeated failure to catch a fish and turn to birdwatching, rockhounding or easier outdoor recreation adventures
The first thing one has to remember about Salmon and trout is they are COLD WATER FISHES!
These Salmonoid species actually feel sick in water temperature above 68 to 72 degrees Fahrenheit. They become prone to viral and fungus attacks in this temperature range and above; and when you have allergies, head cold or the flu, you don't feel much like moving around or eating either!
If a trout fisherman friend tells you to go fishing in a pond or river or stream where there are no trees and shrubs around the banks to keep the water cool - he's telling you to stay away from my successful fishing spot!
If you want to find a good spot to catch trout species, look for cold, Mountain fed water and deep pools in that body of water. Trout and Salmon species are at their best and hungry at 32 to 40 degrees.
However, you need not vacation in Idaho or Colorado to catch trout.
Imported German Brown Trout and relocated Eastern US Brook trout can be found thriving even in urban areas all across America/World. They just need cold, pure, clean water (45 to 58 degrees F.) Muddy water is sure death for salmonoid's filmy egg sacks and the "colloids" or floating clay particles tear and scratch at the adult fish's very tender, un-protected soft gills and that leads to suffocation for trout species. So avoid muddy water for trout fishing or find deep clear pools under the muddy water stream in Spring to find the trout hiding and hungry until the water clears and they can look for food once again!
Trout species society has a "bigger the better" ranking. The bigger trout will take the better cold, pure water pockets in a stream or lake. They will actually chase out smaller fry and neighbors that try to move into their spot or pool in any given ecosystem or their home. Thus, the pan-size fish will be huddled together in less desirable spots along an aquatic ecosystem hoping to get bigger and move down into purer, colder water spots - when they are big enough to beat out the competition for these under water prime locations.
Thus, you'll find pan-size trout under rocks in "riffles" or micro-waterfalls, bank over- hangs and logs - or your trophy-size fish in deep, cold pools!
Another aspect to remember, besides water temperature, is food.
Remember how we talked about muddy water is bad for trout? Muddy water is also very, very bad for what trout eat. Trout, like us, are omnivores. They sit atop their food chain and eat some algae greens and plants and all the smaller animals and insects they can find.
The mud suffocates or smothers all the trout eats. No food and the trout species will move up or down stream!
Lastly, remember Trout can see shadows in the water and this alerts them to dangers overhead and they quickly hide in terror to escape and osprey or eagle overhead in the sky or a raccoon, weasel, bear or fisherman walking along a bank.
Further, water is a good amplifier of sound. So if you are watching your shadow to keep it out of the water; but tromp along the bank and dump your fishing box on the ground - move on to a new location. The savvy trout already feel your presence from the water's sound amplification!
Kids screaming or people wading or any other "non-normal" sounds will quickly cause a trout or salmon to freak and hide/move on and refuse to eat until they feel comfortable once again.
In conclusion, as a fellow trout species worshiper, I am worried about the future of these salmonids species around the world. Trout's presence in a watershed or "riparian area" is a sure sign of cold, pure, high quality water for humans. They are like the "Miner's Canary" that coal miners used to take in tunnels to warn the miners about pockets of bad air. The canary faints and the miners ran for the surface!
Here in North America, you'll be hearing a lot in the years ahead about attempts to restore the Pacific Northwest's and Atlantic Northeast's historic Salmon runs or migrations.
These large area, inland migrations of salmon species upstream have been stopped by dams, toxic watersheds and a general malaise in our American's watershed. The U.S. Endangered Species Act requires the various federal government's land management agencies with the responsibility to stop any significant species from becoming extinct for us voters, as well as the fishes' sake!
For example, "Wetlands" or biologic watershed filters for our water quality and trout habitat are being destroyed in the United States according to a study by the Secretary of the Interior Department and the Government Accounting Office (GAO).