What Is Psychological Prompting?
Prompting is a field of psychology which is concerned with bringing behaviors under stimulus control of a discriminative stimulus.
Prompting is a field of psychology concerned with bringing behaviors under control of a discriminative stimulus. After a behavior is brought under stimulus control of the prompt, the prompt must be faded to put the behavior under the control of the discriminative stimulus. There are also stimulus prompts that alter the original stimulus.
Verbal prompts involve verbal behavior of another person that gets someone to engage in the desired behavior. For example, let’s say a five-year-old child can’t make his/her bed. In order to help, you instruct the child verbally to pull the sheets up and tuck them under the edges. Gestural prompts involve someone making motions that help the person learn to complete an action. This would involve you pulling your hands around in the air as if you were making an imaginary bed. Modeling is used when someone cannot figure out how to do the behavior based on verbal or gestural prompts; this would involve making the bed yourself and having the child watch. Physical prompts include physical contact that entices the behavior; for example, if you were to hold the child’s hands and make the bed with him/her.
There are two types of fading: within prompt and across prompt. Fading across prompts is starting off with the most intrusive kind of prompt (physical), slowly diminishing to a less intrusive prompt (verbal), and then finally not using prompting at all. Fading within prompts involves using one particular kind of prompt, and then diminishing the extent to which you use it.
There are two distinct categories of stimulus prompts: within-stimulus and extra-stimulus. A within-stimulus prompt involves modifying something of the stimulus. For example, let's say that there is a large panel, and you are trying to teach your child what button to push in an emergency. If you colored that button red, it would be a within-stimulus prompt. However, if you put the word "emergency" on the button, this would be an extra-stimulus prompt.