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If you have ever taken a philosophy class, you can remember your mind turning into mush as you discuss the abstract concepts of truth, certainty, relativity, and absolutes. What do all these words mean? How do we come up with logical arguments that can prove the truth of what we are saying? We can discuss these questions, with some basic, simple explanations and definitions.

First off, logic is a way of thinking in which one idea follows another in a structured sequence. It is not only the form of the sequence structure that is important, but the substance of the sentences. A logical statement sequence may say: Bob went to the store. Bob bought an apple at the store, therefore, Bob went to the store to buy an apple. At face value, this sentence is very simple to understand, if you do not read into the statement, or make assumptions about anything. Once we add our own input into the statement, the sentences become saturated with numerous other possibilities. We may have other explanations to add to the statement, such as, Bob really went to the store to meet his wife, but she was not there, so he bought an apple while he was waiting for her. This is only one of many explanations that we may derive from a very simple sentence. Thus, this leads us away from logic and into psychology.

The structure of an argument in philosophy consists of a premise(s) and a conclusion. Premises are conditional statements that suggests at the truth of an argument. A conclusion is a final statement that either forces the truth or falsity of the premises. So if the premises of an argument are true, then the conclusion has to be true. For example, a simple logical argument may be:
My dog is white
Snow is white
Therefore, my dog is snow.

That may not be the best example, but it does show how arguments that can be certain, but not true. It simply illustrates the difference between truth and certainty.