Biography Of Mark Twain
A concise biography of Mark Twain.
Mark Twain was born Sam Clemens on November 30th 1835 in Florida, Missouri to his parents John and Jane Clemens. He lived a good and interesting life and although always dreaming of becoming an author, he had many occupations and experiences before his celebrated books were released in the 1860s.
In 1847 Sam attended the John Dawson's school and began working at the Hannibal Gazette. It was this year also that his beloved father died.
In 1851 he began work as a printer for his brother Orion Clemens' newspaper the Hannibal Journal. After two years Sam decides to leave Hannibal and moves to New York.
After touring parts of the East Coast, Clemens lives in Iowa and works as a printer by day and also writes travel letters by night.
In 1857 Sam begins to work and live as a cub pilot on Mississippi River steamboats, Just months after he begins this new life his brother Henry Clemens dies in an untimely explosion on a local steamboat. This did not deter Sam as just two years later he received his pilot license and worked for two years.
In 1861 Sam Clemens moved to Hannibal and along with 14 other young men forms a militia group. After just two weeks of training, the group disbands and Clemens travels to Nevada with his brother Orion.
1862 sees a job at the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. Clemens loved the city so much after one year he decided to move to the city. It is here that he begins to use the pen name Mark Twain.
In 1867 his first book is published, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. On his voyage to the Alta California, he meets his future wife Olivia Langon and moves to Washington D.C., and becomes a private secretary to Senator William Stewart.
In 1867 the couple become engaged. During this time Twain travels between California and Nevada giving lectures. Two years later he begins a lecture tour along the Midwest and publishes Innocents Abroad, an account of an earlier excursion.
1870 sees the marriage of the engaged couple. They reside in Buffalo, New York and Twain begins a job writing and editing the Buffalo Express. After several months the couple decide to put their house up for sale and put interest in the Express. They then move to Elmira with their family.
In 1872 they move once more to Hartford, Connecticut. Roughing It, an account of his early years is published. Twain then travels to England for three months as a promotional tour and arrives home in time to see his daughter Susy Clemens being born.
England beckons Twain again in 1873 when he undertakes a 6-month lecture tour with his family. The tour begins in May and the family return home in November. While Twain is in England he meets Robert Browning, Lewis Carroll and other writers of the period.
In 1874 the couples second child Clara Clemens is born. One year later Tom Sawyer is published and is celebrated worldwide.
Due to a love of travel, during 1878 and 1880, the family visit Germany, the Swiss Alps, Italy, Paris, Belgium, the French Alps and many other European destinations. When they return from their tours in 1880, Twain's book A Tramp Abroad is published and the couple announces another new arrival, the birth of their third daughter Jean Clemens.
1881 sees the publication of The Prince and the Pauper and then one year later Life on the Mississippi is produced. Three years later Twain founds the Charles W. Webster & Co. publishing house.
In 1885 Twain celebrated his 50th birthday. Soon after the celebrations are over Huckleberry Finn is published and four years later A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court is published. In 1890 both Jane Clemens, Twain's mother and Olivia’s mother die within months of each other.
In 1892 the family decide to flee to Europe and live in Germany, France and Italy. Twain returns to America briefly for business in 1893, and then returns to Europe and moves his family to Berlin. In 1895 Pudd’nhead Wilson is published.
1894 sees the commencement of a world tour and visits to British Columbia, Hawaii, Fiji, Australia and New Zealand.
In 1896 he continues to tour and arrives in India, South Africa and England. Joan of Arc is published and daughter Susy Clemens dies in Hartford, age 23.
Just one year later, while Twain continued on his world tour, his brother Orion Clemens dies. Following the Equator, his next literary work is published.
Between 1898 and 1904 the family visit and live in many different places, such as Vienna, Austria, New York and Prague.
In 1904 daughter Clara has a nervous breakdown just a few months before her father’s 70th birthday.
1906 sees the publication of two of Twains' works; The $30,000 Bequest, What Is Man? and Chapters From My Autobiography. A.B. Paine joins the Clemens household to write Sam’s biography in the same year.
Twain, in 1907 received an honorary degree from the Oxford university, something which he cherished dearly. The publication of Christian Science brought 1907 to a close.
The Final Years
In 1908 the family move to their last home, Stormfield in Connecticut. In 1909 he delivered his last speech before being diagnosed with heart disease. Is Shakespeare Dead?, Captain Stormfield - his last work is published the same year. Clara Clemens meets and marries Ossip Gabrilowitsch, several months later her sister Jean Clemens dies at the family home.
On April 21st, 1910, Clemens dies at Stormfield and is buried shortly after at Elmira’s Woodlawn Cemetery.