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When a substance called rennin is stirred into milk, a curd is formed. This makes casein, a milk protein, to form a denser clump. Rennin coagulates only if the milk is sour. Instead of waiting for the milk to become sour, cheese makers heat the milk and put specialized bacteria into the substance to convert the sugars in milk to lactic acid. This way, the casein coagulates with rennin and clumps forming moist, nutritious curds as it traps fat particles.

Second, the curds are separated from a liquid substance called whey. To do this, the curds are cut into small pieces and drained to remove excess moisture trapped inside. The moisture content of cheese differs on the amount of whey allowed to be left inside it. Highly-moistured cheeses just have their curds cut, drained, and then packed for sale. Low-moistured ones undergo further processes to remove more portion of the whey. Denser cheeses have its curls piled up on top of each other. This method is called cheddaring. In this process, cheesemakers twist and pull them by hand to make a more elastic form of cheese.

These curds are then shaped into different sizes by using the hands. Some of these curds are saltened by just putting salt directly into it. Others are rubbed with brine, a salt water solution on their top surface. This method condenses off moisture from the cheese and serves as a preservative to slow down its ripening process.

At the ripening process, microbes like bacteria are added to gradually change the characteristics of the cheese. The bacteria slowly gets into the inner part of the cheese. This results in a soft interior and a dense, powdery part on the outer side.

The ripening process must take place in an environment where certain conditions are controlled, like cool temperatures to speed up ripening and stop the growth of bacteria that could spoil the cheese. The length of time that cheeses are ripened and their age determine their final outcome.